Development of a Commercially Viable Cod and Haddock Aquaculture Industry in New England

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Project Type: 
Research
Project Number: 
R/FMD-504
Inception Date: 
1995
Completion Date: 
1998
Theme Area: 
Sustainable Aquaculture

Participants:

Linda J. Kling University of Maine Co-Principal Investigator
Terence M. Bradley University of Rhode Island Co-Principal Investigator
Lawrence J. Buckley University of Rhode Island Co-Principal Investigator
W. Huntting Howell UNH - Department of Biological Sciences Principal Investigator

Students Involved:

Steven Seretelli University of Rhode Island
Amy Lapolla University of Rhode Island
Myron Peck University of Rhode Island
Elizabeth Fairchild UNH - Department of Biological Sciences
Heather Hamlin University of Maine
Bradd Baskerville-Bridges University of Maine
C. Chatham University of Maine
Nicholas J. King UNH - Department of Biological Sciences
Deborah Ann Bidwell UNH - Department of Biological Sciences
Robert Krauss University of Rhode Island
Objectives: 

1) To maintain and manipulate cod and haddock broodstock

2) To prolong cod and haddock embryonic development

3) To assess juvenile diets

4) To develop and test microparticulate diets

5) To determine effects of DHA/EPA ratios and lecithin in diets

6) To test two different start-feeding diets

7) To test two different larval rearing systems

8) To determine the efficacy of feeding wild zooplankton

Methodology: 

Broodstock cod and haddock will be collected aboard commercial fishing vessels. Photoperiod will be used to manipulate spawning cycles, and very low incubation temperatures will be used to prolong the development of some embryos. These two techniques, in combination, will ensure the availability of experimental embryos and larvae over most of the year.

A number of microparticulate weaning diets will be formulated based on the known nutritional requirements of marine fish larvae, and several formulated juvenile diets, designed for other species, will be purchased from manufacturers. All formulated diets will be assayed in feeding trials, with growth and survival used to determine diet effectiveness.

Two start-feeding diets (wild zooplankton and cultured zooplankton) will also be tested in feeding trials. Again, survival and growth will be used to judge effectiveness. Two larval rearing systems (semi-intensive and intensive) will also be evaluated by simultaneously rearing identical fish in both systems, and determining which provides the best growth and survival. The efficacy of using wild zooplankton as a start-feeding diet will be determined by the quantity and quality of available wild plankton, and the performance (growth and survival) of the fish fed this diet.

Rationale: 

Marine finfish aquaculture has the potential to provide both high quality, fresh fish to the market, and career opportunities for displaced commercial harvesters. For a number of reasons, the two most prominent candidate species for commercial aquaculture in the Northeast U.S. are cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogramus aeglefinus). The major biological impediments in New England include lack of information on broodstock collection and management, larval rearing systems, and first-feeding, weaning and juvenile diets. In this proposal we develop a coordinated research project designed to facilitate the development of cod and/or haddock aquaculture industries in New England.

Accomplishments: 
Results of this project, and others to which we have supplied embryos, have demonstrated that large-scale culture of cod and haddock is possible in North America. While there is still no commercial production of cod or haddock in the United States, the work that was supported by this grant allowed significant advancements to be made in both the larviculture of cod and especially of haddock. Completion of this project represents a significant step toward commercial aquaculture of cod and haddock.
An outgrowth of this project has been the development of the UNH Open Ocean Aquaculture demonstration project. While summer flounder were grown in the first year, cod and haddock will be grown in the second and third years. The same group of investigators will be involved with that work, and the techniques learned in this study will greatly benefit the next round of studies.
As a direct result of the success we experienced with larviculture of haddock, a Canadian salmon aquaculture company, Connors Bros., is now moving towards commercialization of this species.

Publications

Available from the National Sea Grant Library (use NHU number to search) or NH Sea Grant

Journal Article

  • Buckley, L., T. Bradley and J. Allen-Guilmette (2000). Production, quality and low temperature incubation of eggs of Atlantic cod "Gadus morhua" and haddock "Melanogrammus aeglefinus" in captivity. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 31(1):22-29.
  • Buckley, L. (1997). Culture of marine finfish at the National Marine Fisheries Service Narragansett Laboratory. Journal of Shellfish Restoration 16:284, Milford Aquaculture Seminar, Milford, Conn., February 24-26, 1997.
  • Hamlin, H. and L. Kling (2001). The culture and weaning of larval haddock ("Melanogrammus aeglefinus") using a microparticulate diet. Aquaculture 201:61-72.
  • Peck, M., L. Buckley, L. O'Bryan, E. Davies and A. Lapolla (2004). Efficacy of egg surface disinfectants in captive spawning Atlantic cod "Gadus morhua" L. and haddock "Melanogrammus aeglefinus" L. Aquaculture Research 35:992-996, 2004.
  • Kuenstner, S., R. Langan, G. Parsons, S. Shumway and M. Simonitsch (1997). Sea scallop enhancement and culture in New England. Journal of Shellfish Restoration 16:289, Milford Aquaculture Seminar, Milford, Conn., February 24-26, 1997.
  • Hamlin, H., I. Hunt von Herbing and L. Kling (2000). Histological and morphological evaluations of the digestive tract and associated organs of haddock throughout post-hatching ontogeny. Journal of Fish Biology 57:716-732.
  • Peck, M., L. Buckley and D. Bengtson (2005). Effects of temperature, body size and feedling on rates of metabolism in young-of-the-year haddock. Journal of Fish Biology 66(4):911-923, April 2005.
  • Langan, R., D. Gress, I. Walker, P. Flanigan, J. Sheehy, J. Drake and K. LaValley (1997). Remote setting of the eastern oyster ("Crassotrea virginica") on natural and artificial cultch. Journal of Shellfish Restoration 16:289, Milford Aquaculture Seminar, Milford, Conn., February 24-26, 1997.
  • King, N., W. Howell, M. Huber, D. Bengston (2000). Effects of larval stocking density on laboratory-scale and commercial-scale production of summer flounder "Paralichthys dentatus." Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 31(3):436-445.
  • Peck, M., L. Buckley and D. Bengtson (2003). Energy losses due to routine and feeding metabolism in young-of-the-year juvenile Atlantic cod ("Gadus morhua"). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60:929-937.
  • Peck, M., L. Buckley and D. Bengtson (2004). Inter-individual differences in rates of routine energy loss and growth in young-of-the-year juvenile Atlantic cod. Journal of Fish Biology 64:984-995.
  • Rabe, J., J. Brown, D. Bidwell and W. Howell (1998). Preliminary observations on the larviculture of witch flounder ("Glyptocephalus cynoglossus"). Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association Canada 98-2:19-20.
  • Baskerville-Bridges, B. and L. Kling (2000). Larval culture of Atlantic cod ("Gadus morhua") at high stocking densities. Aquaculture 181:61-69.
  • Baskerville-Bridges, B. and L. Kling (2000). Early weaning of Atlantic cod ("Gadus morhua") larvae onto a microparticulate diet. Aquaculture 189:109-117.
  • Bidwell, D. and W. Howell (2001). The effect of temperature on first feeding, growth, and survival of larval witch flounder "Glyptocephalus cynoglossus." Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 32(4):373-384.
  • Baskerville-Bridges, B. and L. Kling (2000). Development and evaluation of microparticulate diets for early weaning of Atlantic cod "Gadus morhua" larvae. Aquaculture Nutrition 6:171-182.

Thesis/Dissertation

  • Baskerville-Bridges, B. (1999). Studies on rearing and early weaning of Atlantic cod ("Gadus morhua") onto commercial and experimental microparticulate diets. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maine.
  • King, N. (1999). Fingerling production of summer flounder: Commercial scale experiments studying hormonal manipulation of broodstock, larval stocking density, and weaning diet performance. Master's Thesis, University of New Hampshire.
  • Bidwell, D. (1999). The effects of temperature on the early life-history stages of witch flounder, "Glyptocephalus cynoglossus." Master's Thesis, University of New Hampshire.
  • Peck, M.(2001). Aspects of the physiology of early juvenile cod ("Gadus morhua L.") and haddock ("Melanogrammus aeglefinusL."). Doctoral dissertation, University of Rhode Island.
  • Fairchild, E. (1998). Winter flounder "Pseudopleuronectes americanus" stock enhancement: a preliminary investigation into the performance of cultured, juvenile fish. Master's Thesis, University of New Hampshire.

Book Chapter

  • Howell, W. and M. Litvak (2000). Winter flounder culture. In: Encyclopedia of Aquaculture, R.K. Stickney, ed., pp. 998-1005.

Proceeding

  • Howell, W., B. Keller, P. Park, J. McVey, K. Takayanagi and Y. Uekita (1997). Nutrition and technical development of aquaculture: Proceedings of the twenth-sixth U.S.-Japan aquaculture symposium. UJNR Technical Report No. 26, Sept. 16-18, 1997.
  • Bucklin, A. and W. Howell (1998). Progress and prospects from the University of New Hampshire open ocean aquaculture demonstration project. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Open Ocean Aquaculture, pp. 7-30, Corpus Christi, Texas, May 5-10, 1998.
  • King, N., W. Howell and E. Fairchild (1997). The effect of stocking density on the growth of juvenile summer flounder, "Paralichthys dentatus." Nutrition and Technical Development of Aquaculture, Proceedings of the 26th U.S.-Japan Aquaculture Symposium, pp. 173-180, Durham, N.H., Sept. 16-18, 1997. UJNR Technical Report No. 26.
  • King, N. and W. Howell (1997). Effects of microalgae and live diet type on the growth of first feeding winter founders, "Pleuronectes americanus." Nutrition and Technical Development of Aquaculture, Proceedings of the 26th U.S.-Japan Aquaculture Symposium, pp. 67-78, Durham, N.H., Sept. 16-18, 1997. UJNR Technical Report No. 26.
  • Howell, W. (1996). Reactions of cod ("Gadus morhua") in submerged net-pens. Open Ocean Aquaculture, proceedings of an international conference, pp. 363-370, Portland, Maine, May 8-10, 1996.