Developing a Commercially Viable Seaweed Aquaculture Industry in New England

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Project Type: 
Research
Project Number: 
R/FMD-140
Inception Date: 
1995
Completion Date: 
1998
Theme Area: 
Sustainable Aquaculture

Participants:

Arthur Mathieson UNH - Jackson Estuarine Lab Principal Investigator
Christopher Neefus UNH - Department of Biological Sciences Principal Investigator
Charles Yarish University of Connecticut - Stamford Principal Investigator
Anita Klein UNH - Department of Biological Sciences Principal Investigator
Donald Cheney Northeastern University - Marine Science Center Principal Investigator
Subhash Minocha UNH - Department of Biological Sciences Co-Principal Investigator
Ira Levine Coastal Plantations International, Inc. Principal Investigator
D. Dow Maine Sea Grant Co-Principal Investigator
Ian Davison University of Maine Co-Principal Investigator

Students Involved:

Jon Larsen UNH - Department of Biological Sciences
Andrew West UNH - Graduate Program in Genetics
Brian Teasdale UNH - Department of Biological Sciences
Aaron Wallace UNH - Department of Molecular, Cellular & Biomedical Sciences
Katherine Watson Northeastern University
Christina Ryan UNH - Department of Biological Sciences
Darya Hahn UNH - Department of Biological Sciences
Danielle Friel Cain UNH - Graduate Program in Genetics
Kathryn Roberts Northeastern University
Marc Valyo UNH - Department of Biological Sciences
Neil Ganem UNH - Department of Biological Sciences
Kelly Burney UNH - Department of Biological Sciences
Objectives: 

To provide research and development support for the establishment of a commercially viable/sustainable nori (Porphyra) aquaculture industry in New England.

Methodology: 

We have assembled a group of experienced and diverse industry, Sea Grant and academic personnel to develop a cohesive and interdependent research/outreach program dealing with field and culture evaluations, nutrient physiology, populations, genetics, strain improvement, and technology transfer and extension.

Rationale: 

In view of the broad-based support of several federal and state (i.e., Maine) agencies, Porphyra (nori) cultivation in northern New England would appear to have the single greatest potential for generating a viable seaweed industry in the United States. The coastline of Maine is particularly attractive because of its nutrient-rich waters, the need for enhanced coastal employment, and a history of the state granting mariculture permits.

Accomplishments: 

Please see completion report

Publications

Available from the National Sea Grant Library (use NHU number to search) or NH Sea Grant

Journal Article

  • Chopin, T. and C. Yarish (1999). Seaweeds must be a significant component of aquaculture for an integrated ecosystem approach. Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada 99-1:35-37.
  • Chopin, T. and C. Yarish (1998). Nutrients or not nutrients? World Aquaculture 29(4):31, 33, 60-61.
  • Levine, I. (1997). US nori farming: an emerging industry. Phycological Newsletter 34(2):16-17.
  • Yarish, C., T. Chopin, R. Wilkes, A. Mathieson, X. Fei and S. Lu (1999). Domestication of nori for Northeast America: the Asian experience. Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada 99-1:11-17.
  • Grobe, C., C. Yarish and I. Davison (1998). Nitrogen: a critical requirement for "Porphyra" aquaculture. World Aquaculture 29(4):34-35, 57.
  • Kraemer, G. and C. Yarish (1999). A preliminary comparison of the mariculture potential of "Porphyra purpurea" and "Porphyra umbilicalis." Journal of Applied Phycology 11(5):473-477.
  • Levine, I. (1998). Commercial cultivation of "Porphyra" (nori) in the United States. World Aquaculture 29(4):37-38, 45-47.
  • Levine, I. (1999). Marine agronomy in the Atlantic Provinces: Reality or fantasy? Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada 99(1):31-33.
  • Cheney, D. (1999). Strain improvement of seaweeds through genetic manipulation: current status. World Aquaculture Magazine 30(2):55-56, 66-67.
  • Cheney, D. (1999). Developing seaweed aquaculture in the northeast US and Canada: Species and strain improvement. Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada 99(1):23-26.
  • Cheney, D., B. Rudolph, L. Wang, B. Metz, K. Watson, K. Roberts and I. Levine (1998). Genetic manipulation and strain improvement in commercially valuable red seaweeds. New Developments in Marine Biotechnology (22):101-104.
  • Wilkes, R., C. Yarish and G. Mitman (1999). Observations on the chromosome numbers of "Porphyra" (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) populations from Long Island Sound to the Canadian Maritimes. Algae 14(4):219-222.
  • Levine, I. and D. Cheney (1998). North American "Porphyra" cultivation--from molecules to markets. New Developments in Marine Biotechnology (30):141-144.
  • Klein, A., A. Mathieson, C. Neefus, D. Cain, H. Taylor, B. Teasdale, A. West, E. Hehre, J. Brodie, C. Yarish and A. Wallace (2003). Identification of Northwestern Atlantic "Porphyra" (Bangiaceae, Bangiales) based on sequence variation in nuclear SSU and plastic rbcL genes. Phycologia 42(2):109-122.
  • Chopin, T., C. Yarish, I. Levine and P. Van Patten (1998). Seaweed aquaculture. World Aquaculture 29(4):17.
  • West, A., A. Mathieson, A. Klein, C. Neefus and T. Bray (2005). Molecular ecological studies of New England species of "Porphyra" (Rhodophyta, Bangiales). Nova Hedwigia 80(1-2):1-24.
  • Kunimoto, M., H. Kito, Y. Yamamoto, D. Cheney, Y. Kaminishi and Y. Mizukami (1999). Discrimination of "Porphyra" species based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence. Journal of Applied Phycology 11:203-209.
  • Chopin, T., C. Yarish, R. Wilkes, E. Belyea, S. Lu and A. Mathieson (1999). Developing "Porphyra"/salmon integrated aquaculture for bioremediation and diversification of the aquaculture industry. Journal of Applied Phycology 11:463-472.
  • Huang, X., J. Weber, T. Hinson, A. Mathieson and S. Minocha (1996). Transient expression of the GUS reporter gene in the protoplasts and partially digested cells of "Ulva Lactuca" L. (Chlorophyta). Botanica Marina 39:467-474.
  • Huang, Y., S. Maliakal, D. Cheney and G. Rorrer (1998). Comparison of development and photosynthetic growth for filament clumps and regenerated microplantlet cultures of "Agardhiella subulata" (Rhodophyta, Gigatinales). Journal of Phycology 34:893-901.
  • Yarish, C., R. Wilkes, T. Chopin, X. Fei, A. Mathieson, A. Klein, C. Neefus, G. Mitman and I. Levine (1998). Domestication of indigenous "Porphyra" (nori) species for commercial cultivation in northeast America. World Aquaculture 29(4):26-31.
  • Fei, X., S. Lu, Y. Bao, R. Wilkes and C. Yarish (1998). Seaweed cultivation in China. World Aquaculture 29(4):22-25.
  • Minocha, S. (1999). Genetic engineering of marine macroalgae: current status and future perspectives. World Aquaculture Magazine 30(1):29-30, 57.

Thesis/Dissertation

  • Cain, D. (2000). Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of native western North Atlantic "Porphyra" using the 18S ribosomal gene. Master's Thesis, University of New Hampshire.
  • Larsen, J. (1999). Protoplast production and regeneration in "Porphyra" species for use in genetic engineering. Master's Thesis, University of New Hampshire.
  • West, A. (2001). Molecular and ecological studies of New Hampshire species of "Porphyra" (Rhodophyta, Bangiales). Master's Thesis, University of New Hampshire.

Book Chapter

  • Chopin, T., C. Yarish and G. Sharp (2007). Beyond the monospecific approach to animal aquaculture--the light of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture. Chapter 25 (pp. 447-458) in Ecological and Genetic Implications of Aquaculture Activities, Theresa Bert (ed.).

Proceeding

  • Minocha, S. (2003). Genetic engineering of seaweeds: current status and perspectives. Proceedings of the 17th International Seaweed Symposium, Anthony Chapman, Robert Anderson, Valerie Vreeland and Ian Davison, eds., pp. 19-26, Cape Town, S. Africa, Jan 28-Feb. 2, 2001. Published 2003.
  • Watson, K., D. Cheney and I. Levine (1999). Biomonitoring of an aquacultured introduced seaweed, "Porphyra yezonensis" (Rhodophyta, Bangiophycidae) in Cobscook Bay, Maine, USA. In: Marine Bioinvasions: Proceedings of the First National Conference, J. Pederson, ed., 1999, pp. 260-264.
  • Rorrer, G., W. Gerwick and D. Cheney (1998). Production of bioactive compounds by cell and tissue cultures of marine seaweeds in bioreactor systems. Proceedings of the Fourth International Marine Biotechnology Conference, Sept. 22-29, 1997 in Sorrento, Paestum, Oranto and Pugnochiuso, Italy. New developments in marine biotechnology, Y. LeGal and H.O. Halvorson (eds), pp. 65-67, 1998. Plenum Press, N.Y.
  • Rorrer, G., R. Mullikin, B. Huang, W. Gerwick, S. Maliakal and D. Cheney (1999). Production of bioactive metabolites by cell and tissue cultures of marine macroalgae in bioreactor systems. Proceedings of the Symposium on Plant Cell and Tissue Culture for the Production of Food Ingredients, April 13-17, 1997, San Francisco, Calif. Plant cell and tissue culture for the production of food ingredients. Tong-Jen Fu, Gurmeet Singh and Wayne R. Curtis (eds), pp. 165-184, 1999. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.